IPv6 Tunneling


IPv6 Tunneling:
Tunneling is an integration method where an IPv6 packet is encapsulated within another protocol, such as IPv4. This method enables the connection of IPv6 islands without needing to convert the intermediary networks to IPv6. When IPv4 is used to encapsulate the IPv6 packet, a protocol type of 41 is specified in the IPv4 header, and the packet includes a 20-byte IPv4 header with no options and an IPv6 header and payload. It also requires dual-stack routers.
Tunneling presents these two issues. The maximum transmission unit (MTU) is effectively decreased by 20 octets if the IPv4 header does not contain any optional fields. In addition, a tunneled network is often difficult to troubleshoot.
Tunneling is an intermediate integration and transition technique and should not be considered as a final solution. A native IPv6 architecture should be the ultimate goal.

Manually Configured IPv6 Tunnel:
A manually configured tunnel is equivalent to a permanent link between two IPv6 domains over an IPv4 backbone. The primary use is for stable connections that require regular secure communication between two edge routers or between an end system and an edge router, or for connection to remote IPv6 networks. The end routers must be dual stacked, and the configuration cannot change dynamically as network and routing needs change.
Administrators manually configure a static IPv6 address on a tunnel interface, and assign manually configured static IPv4 addresses to the tunnel source and the tunnel destination. The host or router at each end of a configured tunnel must support both the IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks. Manually configured tunnels can be configured between border routers or between a border router and a host.

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