Linux Convert DHCP Network Configuration to Static IP Configuration


My friend wanted to know how to change or convert DHCP network configuration to static configuration. After initial installation, he wanted to change network settings. Further, his system is w/o GUI system aka X Windows. Here is quick way to accomplish the same:

Your main network configuration file is /etc/network/interfaces
Desired new sample settings:
=> Host IP address 192.168.1.100
=> Netmask: 255.255.255.0
=> Network ID: 192.168.1.0
=> Broadcast IP: 192.168.1.255
=> Gateway/Router IP: 192.168.1.254
=> DNS Server: 192.168.1.254

Open network configuration file
$ sudo vi /etc/network/interfaces
OR
$ sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces
Find and remove dhcp entry:
iface eth0 inet dhcp
Append new network settings:
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.1.100
netmask 255.255.255.0
network 192.168.1.0
broadcast 192.168.1.255
gateway 192.168.1.254
Save and close the file. Restart the network:
$ sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

Task: Define new DNS servers
Open /etc/resolv.conf file
$ sudo vi /etc/resolv.conf
You need to remove old DNS server assigned by DHCP server:
search myisp.com
nameserver 192.168.1.254
nameserver 202.54.1.20
nameserver 202.54.1.30
Save and close the file.

Network command line cheat sheet

You can also use commands to change settings. Please note that these settings are temporary and not the permanent. Use above method to make network changes permanent or GUI tool as described below.
Task: Display network interface information

$ ifconfig
Task: Take down network interface eth0 / take a network interface down

$ sudo ifconfig eth0 downOR $ sudo ifdown eth0
Task: Bring a network interface eth0 up

$ sudo ifconfig eth0 upOR$ sudo ifup eth0
Task: Change IP address and netmask from command line
Activate network interface eth0 with a new IP (192.168.1.50) / netmask:
$ sudo ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.50 netmask 255.255.255.0 up
Task: Display the routing table
$ /sbin/route OR$ /sbin/route -n

Output:

Kernel IP routing table
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface
localnet * 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 ra0
172.16.114.0 * 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0
172.16.236.0 * 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth1
default 192.168.1.254 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 ra0

Task: Add a new gateway
Task: Display current active Internet connections (servers and established connection)

$ netstat -nat$ sudo route add default gw 172.16.236.0
Task: Display network interfaces stats (RX/TX etc)

$ netstat -i
Task: Display output for active/established connections only

$ netstat -e
$ netstat -te
$ netstat -tue
Where,

* -t : TCP connections
* -u : UDP connections
* -e : Established

Task: Test network connectivity
Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts, routers, servers etc with ping command. This verifies connectivity exists between local host and remote network system:
$ ping router
$ ping 192.168.1.254
$ ping cyberciti.biz

Task: Use GUI (Graphical Configuration) network Tool
If you are new, use GUI configuration tool, type the following command at terminal:
$ network-admin &
Final tip - Learn how find out more information about commands

A man page is your best friend when you wanted to learn more about particular command or syntax. For example, read detailed information about ifconfig and netstat command:
$ man ifconfig
$ man netstat
Just get a short help with all command options by appending --help option to each command:
$ netstat --help
Find out what command is used for particular task by searching the short descriptions and manual page names for the keyword:
$ man -k 'delete directory'
$ apropos -s 1 remove
Display short descriptions of a command:
$ whatis rm
$ whatis netstat

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