VPN Tunneling,Characteristics of Secure VPNs and VPN Data Integrity

VPN Tunneling
Incorporating appropriate data confidentiality capabilities into a VPN ensures that only the intended sources and destinations are capable of interpreting the original message contents.
Tunneling allows the use of public networks like the Internet to carry data for users as though the users had access to a private network. Tunneling encapsulates an entire packet within another packet and sends the new, composite packet over a network. This figure lists the three classes of protocols that tunneling uses.
To illustrate the concept of tunneling and the classes of tunneling protocols, consider an example of sending a holiday card through traditional mail. The holiday card has a message inside. The card is the passenger protocol. The sender puts the card inside an envelope (encapsulating protocol) with proper addressing applied. The sender then drops the envelope into a mailbox for delivery. The postal system (carrier protocol) picks up and delivers the envelope to the mailbox of the recipient. The two endpoints in the carrier system are the "tunnel interfaces." The recipient removes the holiday card (extracts the passenger protocol) and reads the message.
PPP carries the message to the VPN device, where the message is encapsulated within a Generic Route Encapsulation (GRE) packet. GRE is a tunneling protocol developed by Cisco Systems that can encapsulate a wide variety of protocol packet types inside IP tunnels, creating a virtual point-to-point link to Cisco routers at remote points over an IP internetwork. In the figure, the outer packet source and destination addressing is assigned to "tunnel interfaces" and is made routable across the network. Once a composite packet reaches the destination tunnel interface, the inside packet is extracted.

Characteristics of Secure VPNs:
VPNs use advanced encryption techniques and tunneling to permit organizations to establish secure, end-to-end, private network connections over the Internet.
The foundation of a secure VPN is data confidentiality, data integrity, and authentication:
Data confidentiality - A common security concern is protecting data from eavesdroppers. As a design feature, data confidentiality aims at protecting the contents of messages from interception by unauthenticated or unauthorized sources. VPNs achieve confidentiality using mechanisms of encapsulation and encryption.
Data integrity - Receivers have no control over the path the data has traveled and therefore do not know if the data has been seen or handled while it journeyed across the Internet. There is always the possibility that the data has been modified. Data integrity guarantees that no tampering or alterations occur to data while it travels between the source and destination. VPNs typically use hashes to ensure data integrity. A hash is like a checksum or a seal that guarantees that no one has read the content, but it is more robust. Hashes are explained in the next topic.
Authentication - Authentication ensures that a message comes from an authentic source and goes to an authentic destination. User identification gives a user confidence that the party with whom the user establishes communications is who the user thinks the party is. VPNs can use passwords, digital certificates, smart cards, and biometrics to establish the identity of parties at the other end of a network.

VPN Data Integrity:
If plain text data is transported over the public Internet, it can be intercepted and read. To keep the data private, it needs to be encrypted. VPN encryption encrypts the data and renders it unreadable to unauthorized receivers.
For encryption to work, both the sender and the receiver must know the rules used to transform the original message into its coded form. VPN encryption rules include an algorithm and a key. An algorithm is a mathematical function that combines a message, text, digits, or all three with a key. The output is an unreadable cipher string. Decryption is extremely difficult or impossible without the correct key.
The degree of security provided by any encryption algorithm depends on the length of the key. For any given key length, the time that it takes to process all of the possibilities to decrypt cipher text is a function of the computing power of the computer. Therefore, the shorter the key, the easier it is to break, but at the same time, the easier it is to pass the message.
Some of the more common encryption algorithms and the length of keys they use are as follows:
Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm - Developed by IBM, DES uses a 56-bit key, ensuring high-performance encryption. DES is a symmetric key cryptosystem. Symmetric and asymmetric keys are explained below.
Triple DES (3DES) algorithm - A newer variant of DES that encrypts with one key, decrypts with another different key, and then encrypts one final time with another key. 3DES provides significantly more strength to the encryption process.
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) - The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) adopted AES to replace the existing DES encryption in cryptographic devices. AES provides stronger security than DES and is computationally more efficient than 3DES. AES offers three different key lengths: 128, 192, and 256-bit keys.
Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman (RSA) - An asymmetrical key cryptosystem. The keys use a bit length of 512, 768, 1024, or larger.
Symmetric Encryption
Encryption algorithms such as DES and 3DES require a shared secret key to perform encryption and decryption. Each of the two computers must know the key to decode the information. With symmetric key encryption, also called secret key encryption, each computer encrypts the information before sending it over the network to the other computer. Symmetric key encryption requires knowledge of which computers will be talking to each other so that the same key can be configured on each computer.
For example, a sender creates a coded message where each letter is substituted with the letter that is two letters down in the alphabet; "A" becomes "C," and "B" becomes "D", and so on. In this case, the word SECRET becomes UGETGV. The sender has already told the recipient that the secret key is "shift by 2." When the recipient receives the message UGETGV, the recipient computer decodes the message by shifting back two letters and calculating SECRET. Anyone else who sees the message sees only the encrypted message, which looks like nonsense unless the person knows the secret key.
The question is, how do the encrypting and decrypting devices both have the shared secret key? You could use e-mail, courier, or overnight express to send the shared secret keys to the administrators of the devices. Another easier and more secure method is asymmetric encryption.
Asymmetric Encryption
Asymmetric encryption uses different keys for encryption and decryption. Knowing one of the keys does not allow a hacker to deduce the second key and decode the information. One key encrypts the message, while a second key decrypts the message. It is not possible to encrypt and decrypt with the same key.
Public key encryption is a variant of asymmetric encryption that uses a combination of a private key and a public key. The recipient gives a public key to any sender with whom the recipient wants to communicate. The sender uses a private key combined with the recipient's public key to encrypt the message. Also, the sender must share their public key with the recipient. To decrypt a message, the recipient will use the public key of the sender with their own private key.
Hashes contribute to data integrity and authentication by ensuring that unauthorized persons do not tamper with transmitted messages. A hash, also called a message digest, is a number generated from a string of text. The hash is smaller than the text itself. It is generated using a formula in such a way that it is extremely unlikely that some other text will produce the same hash value.
The original sender generates a hash of the message and sends it with the message itself. The recipient decrypts the message and the hash, produces another hash from the received message, and compares the two hashes. If they are the same, the recipient can be reasonably sure the integrity of the message has not been affected.
VPN data is transported over the public Internet. As shown, there is potential for this data to be intercepted and modified. To guard against this threat, hosts can add a hash to the message. If the transmitted hash matches the received hash, the integrity of the message has been preserved. However, if there is no match, the message was altered.
VPNs use a message authentication code to verify the integrity and the authenticity of a message, without using any additional mechanisms. A keyed hashed message authentication code (HMAC) is a data integrity algorithm that guarantees the integrity of the message.
A HMAC has two parameters: a message input and a secret key known only to the message originator and intended receivers. The message sender uses a HMAC function to produce a value (the message authentication code), formed by condensing the secret key and the message input. The message authentication code is sent along with the message. The receiver computes the message authentication code on the received message using the same key and HMAC function as the sender used, and compares the result computed with the received message authentication code. If the two values match, the message has been correctly received and the receiver is assured that the sender is a member of the community of users that share the key. The cryptographic strength of the HMAC depends upon the cryptographic strength of the underlying hash function, on the size and quality of the key, and the size of the hash output length in bits.
There are two common HMAC algorithms:
Message Digest 5 (MD5) - Uses a 128-bit shared secret key. The variable length message and 128-bit shared secret key are combined and run through the HMAC-MD5 hash algorithm. The output is a 128-bit hash. The hash is appended to the original message and forwarded to the remote end.
Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA-1) - Uses a 160-bit secret key. The variable length message and the 160-bit shared secret key are combined and run through the HMAC-SHA-1 hash algorithm. The output is a 160-bit hash. The hash is appended to the original message and forwarded to the remote end.
When conducting business long distance, it is necessary to know who is at the other end of the phone, e-mail, or fax. The same is true of VPN networks. The device on the other end of the VPN tunnel must be authenticated before the communication path is considered secure. There are two peer authentication methods:
Pre-shared key (PSK) - A secret key that is shared between the two parties using a secure channel before it needs to be used. PSKs use symmetric key cryptographic algorithms. A PSK is entered into each peer manually and is used to authenticate the peer. At each end, the PSK is combined with other information to form the authentication key.
RSA signature - Uses the exchange of digital certificates to authenticate the peers. The local device derives a hash and encrypts it with its private key. The encrypted hash (digital signature) is attached to the message and forwarded to the remote end. At the remote end, the encrypted hash is decrypted using the public key of the local end. If the decrypted hash matches the recomputed hash, the signature is genuine.


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